By Francis Njubi Nesbitt
"An very important contribution to the political heritage of this era [and] a needs to for these attracted to the effect of the nice pan-Africanists." ―Elliott P. Skinner
This research lines the evolution of the anti-apartheid flow from its origins within the Nineteen Forties in the course of the civil rights and black strength eras to its maturation within the Eighties as a strength that remodeled U.S. international coverage. The
movement first and foremost met resistance and was once quickly repressed, simply to reemerge in the course of the civil rights period, whilst it turned radicalized with the arriving of the black freedom stream. The publication appears at 3 very important political teams: TransAfrica―the black foyer for Africa and the Caribbean; the unfastened South Africa move; and finally the Congressional Black Caucus and its position in passing sanctions opposed to South Africa over President Reagan’s veto. It concludes with an evaluate of the effect of sanctions at the unencumber of Nelson Mandela and his eventual election as president of South Africa.
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Extra info for Race for Sanctions: African Americans against Apartheid, 1946-1994
Malcolm X was the link between the liberation support movements of the 1920s and 1930s and the nationalism of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the African Liberation Day Support Committee; his early support for the armed struggle in Kenya was a precursor to the support for armed revolution in southern Africa during the 1970s. , Southern Christian Leadership Conference; Whitney Young, National Urban League; Roy Wilkins, NAACP; A. Philip Randolph, BSCP; Dorothy Height, National Council of Negro Women; and James Farmer, CORE.
This invocation of the “glorious African past” as a justi¤cation for freedom is very different from the invocation of the Constitution of the United States and the Bible by civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King Jr. This fundamental difference in orientation was to be erased after Malcolm’s trip to Africa and the formation of the Organization of African American Unity in 1964. During the 1950s, however, Malcolm advocated the traditional nationalist position based on land in a separate black nation in North America or in Africa.
The ANPM newsletter, for instance, continued to carry articles by Africans, nationalists, and pan-Africanists. An article by Tchekedi Eketembe on African nationalism described the South African Boers as “nothing more than the scum of Holland” and “the ¤end that today assumes the power of life and death over the rightful owner of South Africa—the Black native . . 6 According to Richard B. Moore, Malcolm X joined Cooks frequently at “Africa Square” in Harlem during the early 1950s and was in®uenced by his pan-African orientation.