By G.Michael Schneider, Judith Gersting
В книге американского автора излагаются принципы построения и методы проектирования визуальных средств робототехнических систем. Рассматриваются математические методы анализа зрительной информации, приводятся алгоритмы, позволяющие обрабатывать ее на вычислительных машинах. При этом упор делается на изучение хорошо зарекомендовавших себя на практике методах и алгоритмах.
Для научных работников, инженеров, студентов и аспирантов, занимающихся анализом зрительной информации в робототехнике и при создании искусственного интеллекта.
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These early developments in mathematics and arithmetic were important milestones because they demonstrated how mechanization could simplify and speed up numerical computation. For example, Leibnitz’s Wheel enabled seventeenth-century mathematicians to generate tables of mathematical functions many times faster than was possible by hand. ) However, the slide rule and mechanical calculators of Pascal and Leibnitz, though certainly impressive devices, were not computers. Specifically, they lacked two fundamental characteristics: They did not have a memory where information could be stored in machinereadable form.
Until then, all computers were programmed externally using wires, connectors, and plugboards. The memory unit stored only data, not instructions. For each different problem, users had to rewire virtually the entire computer. For example, the plugboards on the ENIAC contained 6,000 separate switches, and reprogramming the ENIAC involved specifying the new settings for all these switches—not a trivial task. Von Neumann proposed that the instructions that control the operation of the computer be encoded as binary values and stored internally in the memory unit along with the data.
S. Navy during the war. S. Army. During the early days of World War II, the Army was producing many new artillery pieces, but it found that it could not produce the firing tables equally as fast. These tables told the gunner how to aim the gun on the basis of such input as distance to the target and current temperature, wind, and elevation. Because of the enormous number of variables and the complexity of the computations (which use both trigonometry and calculus), these firing tables were taking more time to construct than the gun itself—a skilled person with a desk calculator required about 20 hours to analyze a single 60-second trajectory.