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By Jill St. Germain

Damaged Treaties is a comparative evaluation of Indian treaty negotiation and implementation concentrating on the 1st decade following the United States–Lakota Treaty of 1868 and Treaty Six among Canada and the Plains Cree (1876). Jill St. Germain argues that the “broken treaties” label imposed through nineteenth-century observers and perpetuated within the ancient literature has obscured the implementation adventure of either local and non-Native contributors and distorted our figuring out of the relationships among them. hence, historians have neglected the function of the Treaty of 1868 because the device during which the U.S. and the Lakotas mediated the cultural divide keeping apart them within the interval among 1868 and 1875. In discounting the treaty historians have additionally didn't delight in the wider context of U.S. politics, which undermined a treaty strategy to the Black Hills quandary in 1876. In Canada, however, the “broken treaties” culture has obscured the fairly diversified knowing of Treaty Six held via Canada and the Plains Cree. the lack of both social gathering to understand the other’s place fostered the dangerous false impression that culminated within the Northwest uprising of 1885. within the first serious evaluation of the implementation of those treaties, damaged Treaties restores Indian treaties to a important place within the research of Native–non-Native kin within the usa and Canada. (20100601)

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Additional info for Broken treaties: United States and Canadian relations with the Lakotas and the Plains Cree, 1868-1885

Example text

Indigenous peoples, however, were unique in this regard, as was evident in the approaches the United States adopted toward them. S. interaction with Indians was shaped in part by the Proclamation of 1763, issued by the British government in an effort to contain interracial conmict in the trans-Appalachian West. The proclamation acknowledged the existence of Indian rights to the use of lands and required that these be extinguished prior to settlement. 1 Indian treaties were the primary tool of Indian-white relations in the British tradition.

S. ” The most dramatic moment of that strife came on December 21, 1866, when the eighty-man command of Captain William J. Fetterman fell victim to an overwhelming force of Oglala warriors under Red Cloud, just beyond the protective walls of Fort Phil Kearny, where they were posted. The massacre handed the army its worst defeat in Plains warfare before 1876, but it only intensiled the reaction in Washington against a violent solution and prompted Congress to an even more ambitious peace effort. S.

Among those lured to the peace table in 1866 to discuss the future of the road was an Oglala headman named Red Cloud. Hardly had the council gathered than an army contingent arrived at Fort Laramie, on its way to fortify the Bozeman Trail with or without the Lakotas’ permission. Red Cloud abandoned the treaty talks, taking with him any possibility of peace along the Bozeman Trail that year. S. ” The most dramatic moment of that strife came on December 21, 1866, when the eighty-man command of Captain William J.

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