By Mario Maj, Hagop S. Akiskal, Juan José López-Ibor Jr., Norman Sartorius
Bipolar illness is a major psychological disease concerning episodes of great mania and melancholy and impacts nearly one to 3 percentage of the inhabitants. in keeping with the nationwide Institute of psychological future health approximately million contributors within the usa by myself are clinically determined with this ailment.
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Additional resources for Bipolar Disorders
In the elderly, bipolar depression may present as a pseudodementia. , ``atypical depression'' in the sense of DSM-IV) are more characteristic of juvenile bipolar depressives, particularly adolescents and young adult women. Psychomotor retardation, with or without hypersomnia, is generally considered the hallmark of the uncomplicated depressive phase of bipolar disorder . Onset and offset are often abrupt, though gradual onset over several weeks can also occur. , ECT, sleep deprivation, and antidepressants).
However, in ultra-rapid cycling there may be considerable overlap with mixity. Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Classified This is a residual category in which ICD-10 places bipolar II disorder, and DSM-IV places what is beyond bipolar II disorder. Neither manual considers the existence of hyperthymic traits which could precede (or follow) depres- CLASSIFICATION, DIAGNOSIS AND BOUNDARIES 33 sive episodes [23, 24]. It is also curious that hypomania/mania in association with antidepressant treatment is not even mentioned as a candidate for bipolar disorder not otherwise classifiedÐit is simply voted out of existence!
To recapitulate, candidates proposed for inclusion in a broadly conceived bipolar spectrum are mania; recurrent depressions with hypomania (irrespective of duration), pharmacologically mobilized hypomania, as well as those in association with cyclothymic and hyperthymic temperaments; and finally recurrent (pseudo-unipolar) depressions with bipolar family history, or cyclic depressions responsive to lithium. An International Exchange on Bipolar Disorder (IEBD)  among 30 clinician-researchers from both sides of the Atlantic took place in Barcelona in the spring of 1998 to consider, among others, the current status of clinically validated bipolar subtypes.