By Bharat Singh
Chapter 1 Biofuel Crop Sustainability Paradigm (pages 3–29): B.P. Singh
Chapter 2 Sustainable construction of Grain plants for Biofuels (pages 31–52): A.A. Jaradat
Chapter three Sugarcane as an power Crop: Its position in Biomass economic system (pages 53–108): R. van Antwerpen, S.D. Berry, T. van Antwerpen, J. Smithers, S. Joshi and M. van der Laan
Chapter four Sustainable Cellulosic Grass Crop creation (pages 109–164): J.H. Fike, D.J. Parrish and W.B. Fike
Chapter five Sustainable Oil plants creation (pages 165–204): C. Eynck, D. Shrestha, J. Vollmann, K.C. Falk, W. Friedt, H.P. Singh and E. Obeng
Chapter 6 Short?rotation Woody Crop Biomass construction for Bioenergy (pages 205–237): L.C. Kiser and T.R. Fox
Chapter 7 Biomass Feedstock construction impression on Water source Availability (pages 239–260): K.C. Stone, P.G. Hunt, K.B. Cantrell and K.S. Ro
Chapter eight Biofuel plants and Soil caliber and Erosion (pages 261–299): D. Chatskikh, A. Ovchinnikova, B. Seshadri and N. Bolan
Chapter nine Nutrient administration in Biofuel Crop creation (pages 301–324): R. Lemus
Chapter 10 nutrition, Farming, and Biofuels (pages 325–355): J. Popp
Chapter eleven Biofuel vegetation, environment companies, and Biodiversity (pages 357–382): A. Fieldsend and H.P. Singh
Chapter 12 Biofuel vegetation and Greenhouse Gases (pages 383–405): A. Hastings, J. Yeluripati, J. Hillier and P. Smith
Chapter thirteen Economics of Biomass Feedstocks and Biofuels (pages 407–429): T.A. Maung, C. Gustafson, B. McCarl, D. Ripplinger and D. Saxowsky
Chapter 14 Geospatial Modeling functions for Biofuel Sustainability overview (pages 431–448): S.S. Panda
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Extra info for Biofuel Crop Sustainability
Although GHG emissions during the production of grain crops could be large enough to offset the reduction of global warming achieved by using biofuels (Philippot and Hallin, 2011), the use of crop residues and other biomass for biofuels raises many environmental and ethical issues. , 2009). The total GHG impact of growing 1 kg of harvestable above-ground plant dry matter, not including soil C changes, is 260 and 130 g CO2 equivalent for maize and a perennial crop (switchgrass), respectively. If only maize grain is harvested, the impact is 390 g CO2 equivalent kg−1 dry matter.
It is clear from the ﬁgure that biodiesel from oilseed crops like soybean and rapeseed have no possibility of becoming competitive with petroleum fuel under any circumstance, the main reason being low yields and high prices. But other biofuel types will become competitive to gasoline around 2030 at low production cost. Under a high-cost scenario, only sugarcane ethanol will become fully competitive around 2020 and biosynthetic gas somewhat competitive by 2040; the other two projected biofuel types, cellulosic ethanol and BtL, will lose out to gasoline.
8. 2020 2035 2050 Trends in the production of different biofuels. Source: IEA (2008). 9. Costs of different biofuels compared to gasoline (BLUE Map Scenario: it models future energy demand until 2050 based on the criteria of global long-term CO2 concentration in the atmosphere of 450 parts per million). (Note: costs reﬂect global average retail price without taxation. Regional differences can occur depending on feedstock prices and other cost factors). Source: IEA (2010). 26 Biofuel Crop Sustainability cellulosic crops at competitive prices can only assure achieving target set for the replacement of biofuel in a timely manner.