Download Aristotle, Prior Analytics by Aristotle, Smith (trans.) PDF

By Aristotle, Smith (trans.)

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It is evident, then, that a deduction comes about when the terms are related in this way. But it is not complete, for the necessary result is brought to completion not from the initial premises alone, but 15 from others in addition. But if M is predicated of every N and of every X, there will not be a deduction. Terms for belonging are substance, animal, man; for not belonging, substance, animal, number (the middle is substance). Nor is there a deduction when M is predicated neither of any N nor of any X.

By the middle in it I mean that term of which they are both predicated, and by extremes the things predicated: by major extreme I mean the one farther from the middle and by minor the one closer. The middle is placed outside the extremes and is last in posicion. Now, a complete 10 IS deduction does not come about in this figure either, but a potential one may, borh when the terms are universal in relation to the middle and when they are not universal. When they are universal, then when both P and R belong to every S, it results of necessity that P will belong to some R.

It is possible for A to belong to every B and it is possible for B not to belong to some C), then an evident deduction does not come about through the premises taken; but when the particular premise is converted and it is put [hat it is possible for B to belong to some C, [hen there will also be the same co nclusion as before, just as in the initial cases . If the prem ise in relation to the major extreme is taken as particular and the premise in relation to the minor as universal. then whether both are put as affirmatives, or both as privatives, or they are not put as the same in form, or both as indeterminates or particulars, there will not be a deduction in any way.

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