By Susan D. Collins
Aristotle and the Rediscovery of Citizenship confronts a query that's significant to Aristotle's political philosophy in addition to to modern political concept: what's a citizen? solutions turn out to be elusive, partly simply because past due twentieth-century reviews of the Enlightenment known as into doubt primary tenets that after guided us. enticing the 2 significant works of Aristotle's political philosophy, his Nicomachean Ethics and his Politics, Susan D. Collins poses questions that present discussions of liberal citizenship don't effectively tackle. Drawing a course from modern disputes to Aristotle, she examines intimately his advanced displays of ethical advantage, civic schooling, and legislation; his view of the goals and boundaries of the political neighborhood; and his therapy of the relationship among citizenship and the human solid. Collins thereby indicates how Aristotle is still an imperative resource of enlightenment, as he has been for political and spiritual traditions of the prior.
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89 As Galston also acknowledges, moreover, the mere fact of diversity is insufficient to establish its naturalness or desirability. Judging whether the heterogeneity of the moral world under a properly constituted liberal democracy, or under any other condition, reflects the “actual structure of the normative universe” requires establishing that these conditions are also natural to and naturally good for human beings. It is this important question that ultimately undergirds the disagreement between Macedo and Galston concerning the constitution of a liberal order and the character of liberal citizenship.
The reasonable citizen thus understands that his or her own religious and moral ideals cannot be awarded constitutional status in a democratic society marked by a pluralism of comprehensive views. Yet the treatment of moral disagreement by Gutmann and Thompson, and the dispute between Rawls and Sandel, raise the question of whether liberalism can subordinate moral and religious ideals to the requirements of liberal justice without confronting the question of their truth or, more precisely, without addressing their claims, as well as liberalism’s own claims, with regard to the human good.
Berkowitz, Virtue and the Making of Modern Liberalism, p. 23. 28 Liberal Citizenship and Aristotle’s Ethics reason, scholars have been ever more willing to speak of the “liberal virtues,” emphasize the educative role of religious, civic, and familial associations, and underscore the duties rather than the rights of citizenship. To be sure, Rawls himself acknowledges the necessity of virtue in the practice of liberal politics, especially “the virtues of fair social cooperation,” civility, tolerance, reasonableness, and the sense of fairness.