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By John M. Watson and J. B. Stenlake (Auth.)

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Sinensis infection. The pathogenic effects of the two parasites are identical. Fasciola hepatica (Sheep liver-fluke). This cosmopolitan species is primarily a parasite of sheep and goats, in which it causes the disease known as liver-rot; but human infections occur from time to time in most endemic areas. It is a large (2-3 by 1 cm), leafshaped fluke which lives in the bile-ducts of the host, causing similar pathogenic effects and symptoms to the two preceding species. Toxaemia, however, is usually more marked.

Rodhaini S. spindalis S. mattheei Visceral veins, especially mesenteric and portal Location in hosts Dogs, cats, pigs, goats, horses, cattle Cattle, sheep, goats (man) Definitive hosts Schistosoma japonicum Parasite TABLE 6 HELMINTHOLOGY chiefly contracted by swimmers, agricultural labourers, sportsmen and collectors, bathers, fishermen, clam-diggers and others whose activities bring them frequently into contact with infested water. There are no systemic symptoms and the condition is selfterminating after a while.

Oökinete penetrating epithelial cell. Oöcyst forming on outer side of stomach wall. Oöcyst enlarging. Sporogony, Sporoblasts forming inside cyst. Sporozoites forming by division of sporoblasts and escaping by bursting of cyst. 25 Sporozoites making their way through haemocoele to salivary gland. 26 Sporozoites in salivary gland of mosquito. 27 Sporozoites entering liver of human host. —Stages 1 to 12 and 27 in man (primary host). Stages 13 to 26 in mosquito (secondary host). 19 20 21 22 23 24 A B C D 1 2 3 4 Lowerfigure—ComparativeFeatures of Human Malaria Parasites in Blood.

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