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By Harvey M Deitel; Barbara Deitel

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Unlike the ABC and today's binary computers, the EN IAC used decimal arithmetic. Every digit in the machine could contain any of the decimal digits from zero to nine. Counting proceeded from 0, 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 , 8 , 9 and then to "O carry the 1 " to form the n u mber 1 0. In binary, only the digits zero and one are used, and n umbers are carried on every second count. Binary is awkward for humans but convenient for computers. A binary digit (or bit, as it is called) can be built out of one switch that may be open or closed (off or on).

Both of Babbage's machines greatly influenced future re- In 1 842 Augusta Ada Byron, Countess of Love­ lace ( Figure 2 - 1 1 ), daughter of the poet Lord Byron, translated a paper on Babbage's Analytical Engine from French to English. During her work on the translation she made abundant notes, and at one point included a detailed sequence of in­ structions for the Analytical Engine to perform certain complex calculations. This is generally considered the first computer program and gives Lady Lovelace the distinction of being regarded by many as the world's first computer program­ mer.

How computers m ake decision 4 . What a compu ter' i n trucrion et i s and what the major type of computer in ·truction are 5. : and Logic ti. :cs of Technology B1oc h 1 p<. ( Fi e h wa re ? ) Left: The processor of the omputer controls it opera­ tion , m uch as rhe brain controls the h u man body. Thi� illu rrarion how the console of a la rge computer y rem. The knobs, button , toggle , and l ighr a l l help a per on ro monitor and control rhe operation of rhc compurer. � r:;;:i 48 Hardware In the future, you 're going to get computers as prizes in breakfast cereals.

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