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By Alison R. Bernstein

The impression of global struggle II on Indian affairs was once extra profound and lasting than that of the other occasion or policy--including Roosevelt’s Indian New Deal and efforts to terminate federal accountability for tribes less than Eisenhower. concentrating on the interval from 1941 to 1947, Alison R. Bernstein explains why termination and tribal self-determination have been logical result of the Indians’ global struggle II reviews in conflict and at the domestic entrance.

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03 percent of the total population of the United States. It did not, however, take into account Indians of mixed racial backgrounds who did not appear on tribal rolls or in the files of local Indian agencies. The BIA did not recognize any responsibility for these Indians. Government programs typically emphasized and addressed the problems of the largest tribes. The highly assimilated Five Civilized Tribes of Oklahoma and the isolated Navajo in Arizona and New Mexico, for example, made up 30 percent of the total Indian population.

To many Indians and whites, such a theme would have been unthinkable even a decade before. In 1940 the Indian population in the United States stood at 345,252, dramatically up from 237,196 in 1900, the year the Indian population had reached its nadir. During the 1930s, a decade marked by the Great Depression, Indians had ironically begun to make a comeback. Although reforms in federal Indian health and education policies had emerged in the Hoover years, John Collier's Indian New Deal has been credited with the gains Indians made in the 1930s.

These pro-Nazi agitators focused their efforts on the Page 26 Plains Indians since, in a propaganda move, the German government had officially declared the Sioux to be Aryans. 15 Alice Lee Jemison, a part-Iroquois publicist and Washington representative of the staunchly anti-Collier American Indian Federation, revealed in a congressional hearing that she had been paid by an agent of the Bund to circulate falsehoods about the BIA and incite Indians in Montana and the Dakotas against the draft. 16 Some communists formed an organization of landless Indians in Montana and encouraged them to oppose conscription.

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