By Alexander of Aphrodisias, R.W. Sharples
Alexander of Aphrodisias - the major historical commentator on Aristotle - bargains interpretations to do with ethical advantage, the standards for judging activities voluntary, and so forth. Translation of textual content with statement and notes
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179,36ff. as arguing that the four 'elements' are opposed in quality, not in 'body'. That fire and water are opposed to each other in respect of 'a species-creating differentia' is argued by Dexippus in Cat. 52,5ff. and Simplicius in Cat. 107,26ff. and 108,9, while Philoponus in Cat. 74,17 argues that the heat in fire is not strictly speaking opposite to the coldness in water at all, since opposites must have a common substrate; similarly too Syrianus, cited by Elias, loc. cit. Elias' citation from Alexander presumably comes from Alexander's own Categories commentary, now lost; and the present Problem may reflect discussion there.
Thus, if this is a property of wealth - for it is through this that the good man [performs] activities of liberality and magnificence - then [wealth] will41 be an instrument for the good man; for it is on the basis of what is included in the essence of an instrument that we judge what 15 is an instrument, as in the case of all other things, and not on the basis of its accidents. Someone might also show that neither of the premisses is supposed rightly, neither that which supposes that there is nothing opposite to what is an instrument, nor that which says that wealth has an opposite.
125 That is, in the way in which anyone would naturally stumble when pushed. 121 Problem 13 43 126 in accordance with one's own impulse] is in [the agent] himself. For the man who throws the cargo out of the ship into the sea with his own hands127 acts voluntarily not because he moves his arms, 15 but because he does it having chosen to do it. Again, those who do something through pleasure do not [act128] under compulsion, because they themselves do what they do on account of the pleasure, and do not have the efficient [cause] outside of themselves.