By Brian Kahin, Dominique Foray
The revolution in details expertise transforms not just info and its makes use of yet, extra very important, wisdom and the methods we generate and deal with it. wisdom is now visible as enter, output, and capital, whether imperfectly accounted for or understood. Many companies and public enterprises are confident that wisdom could be controlled in subtle, rational methods and that networking and data know-how are crucial instruments for doing so. during this assortment, specialists from North the USA and Europe examine the transformation of information within the worldwide financial system in gentle of the quick alterations in info know-how, the ensuing explosion of facts, the popularity of intangibles as resources of price and legal responsibility, and the more and more blurred contrast among deepest and public knowledge.The charm of the web as boundary-spanning wisdom infrastructure, bridging all sectors of the economic climate, is shadowed by way of one other infrastructure of rights-based contracts, practices, and associations. The individuals deal with the ways that the approaches for growing and organizing wisdom have interaction with details expertise, enterprise procedure, and altering social and fiscal stipulations. They speak about the balkanization that effects from the complexity of the information economic climate, the diversity of data assets, the nice variety of institutional and industry contexts, and competing versions of regulate and cooperation--and of proprietary and non-proprietary knowledge.Contributors:Berglind ?sgeirsd?ttir, Carliss Y. Baldwin, Kim B. Clark, Iain M. Cockburn, Patrick Cohendet, Robin Cowan, Paul A. David, Jan Fagerberg, Brian Fitzgerald, Dominque Foray, Peter A. Freeman, Fred Gault, Dietmar Harhoff, Margaret Hedstrom, C. Suzanne Iacono, Brian Kahin, John Leslie King, Kurt Larsen, Josh Lerner, Bengt-?ke Lundvall, David C. Mowery, Arti okay. Rai, Bhaven Sampat, Martin Schaaper, Tom Schuller, W. Edward Steinmueller, Stefan Thomke, Jean Tirole, Reinhilde Veugelers, St?phan Vincent-Lancrin, Eric von Hippel, Andrew Wyckoff
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Link and N. S. Vonortas, editors, pp. 63–92. Washington DC: National Science Foundation. Hatzichronoglou, T. (1997). ’’ OECD STI Working Paper 1997/2, Paris: OECD. Measuring Knowledge and Its Economic Effects 41 Hodgson, G. M. (2000). ’’ In The Creative Society of the 21st Century, pp. 89–112. Paris: OECD. Kline, S. , and N. Rosenberg (1986). ’’ In The Positive Sum Strategy: Harnessing Technology for Economic Growth, R. Landau and N. Rosenberg, editors, p. 289. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
1 (UN 2002), and these aggregations of four-digit ISIC classes allow analysts to track the behavior of these sectors and to compare a sector with other sectors, or four-digit classes. As a concrete example, Statistics Canada publishes monthly GDP ﬁgures for the ICT sector (Statistics Canada 2004) using this aggregation. The classiﬁcation of industries as knowledge intensive, or as high, medium, and low tech, based on R&D intensity (Hatzichronoglou 1997) is not without its problems since agreement has to be reached on the assumptions needed to do this.
Stehr, Nico (1996). ‘‘Knowledge as a Capacity 88F0017MIE1996002, Ottawa: Statistics Canada. ’’ Catalogue No. UN (1990). International Standard Industrial Classiﬁcation of All Economic Activities, Revision 3, Series M, No. 4/Rev. 3. New York: Author. ——— (2002). 1, Series M, No. 4/Rev. 1. New York: Author. von Hippel, E. (1988). The Sources of Innovation. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. ——— (1998). ’’ Management Science 44: 5. 5 Assessing Innovation Capacity: Fitting Strategy, Indicators, and Policy to the Right Framework Reinhilde Veugelers Introduction Europe’s growth performance has been the subject of increasing scrutiny during recent years, most notably in the context of the Lisbon process to make the European Union the most knowledge-based economy in the world and its efforts to encourage governments to introduce employment- and productivity-enhancing reforms.