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By John R. Baker, Ralph Muller, David Rollinson

The Advances in Parasitology sequence comprises in-depth reports on present themes of curiosity in modern parasitology. It comprises clinical experiences on parasites of significant impact, corresponding to trypanosomiasis and scabies, and extra conventional components, similar to zoology, taxonomy, and lifestyles heritage, which form present pondering and purposes. * sequence has the second one optimum ISI influence think about the parasitology workforce! (4.818 in 2002) * members are foreign specialists within the box

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Inhibition of some but not all MÈ signalling pathways has also been described in MÈs infected with amastigotes of several Leishmania species. , 1998; Sacks and Sher, 2002). Infectious stages of Leishmania spp. thus seem to selectively modulate MÈ functions establishing an intracellular niche compatible with their survival. 2. , 2001). In parallel with this differentiation process, the phagocytic compartments harbouring the parasites are the object of numerous remodelling events (Figure 3; see colour plate section).

Amazonensis metacyclic promastigotes proceeds first by the engulfment of the parasite cell body followed by the progressive internalization of the flagellum. , 2002; N. Courret, S. Henri and E. Handman, unpublished observation). Although it has been previously claimed that initial interactions of promastigotes with MÈ plasma membrane occur through the tip of the flagellum, the recent generation of L. , 2000, 2003). , 1999). -C. ANTOINE ET AL. lipophosphoglycan (LPG, a complex glycolipid forming a dense glycocalyx), the leishmanolysin/GP63 (a family of zinc metalloproteases), the glycoinositolphospholipids of low molecular weight structurally related to LPG and a GPI-anchored membrane proteophosphoglycan, or indirectly through opsonization by complement components C3b and iC3b and the C-reactive protein (for a review see Handman, 2000).

4. Expression of Co-stimulatory Molecules by Infected MÈs The data discussed above indicate that the sensu stricto class IIrestricted Ag presentation process is at least partially altered in Leishmania-infected MÈs and their ability to stimulate T cells is compromised. g. ICAM-1, ICAM-2, LFA-1, LFA-3) and co-stimulatory molecules like B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86). These are involved in the transient binding of T cells to APCs and in signalling cascades leading to T cell activation, respectively.

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