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1995). Information sources: Building and maintaining data files. In Safety Assessment for Pharmaceuticals (S. C. ). Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. Lu, F. C. (1985). Basic Toxicology, pp. 68-95. Hemisphere, New York. Page, N. P. (1986). International harmonization of toxicity testing. In Safety Evaluation of Drugs and Chemicals (W. E. ), pp. 455-467. Hemisphere, New York. Russell, W. M. , and Burch, R. L. (1959). The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Methuen, London. CHAPTER 3 Tests for Dermal Irritation and Corrosion Evaluation of materials for their potential to cause dermal irritation and corrosion due to acute contact has been common for industrial chemicals, cosmetics, agricultural chemicals, and consumer products since at least the 1930s (generally, pharmaceuticals are only evaluated for dermal effects if they are to be administered topically--and then by repeat exposure tests, which will not be addressed here).

5. 5-cm square, 12-ply surgical gauze patch. The gauze patch is applied to the appropriate skin site and secured with 1-in. wide strips of surgical tape at the four edges, leaving the center of the gauze patch nonoccluded. 6. 5-g portion is weighed and placed on the gauze patch. The test substance patch is placed on skin site 1 and secured. a. 5 g. b. , the gauze patch designated for the test sample is secured to the appropriate skin site with one of four strips of tape at the most central position of the animal.

Montagna, W. (1961). The Structure and Function of Skin, 2nd ed. Academic Press, New York. Naughton, G. , and Naughton, B. A. (1989). A physiological skin model for in vitro toxicity studies. In Progress in in Vitro Toxicology (A. M. ), Vol. 7, pp. 183-189. Liebert, New York. Nixon, G. , Tyson, C. , and Wertz, W. C. (1975). Interspecies comparisons of skin irritancy. Appl. Pharmacol. 31,481-590. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (1992). OECD guidelines for testing of chemicals, Section 404, Acute Dermal Irritation/Corrosion, adopted July 17, 1992, Paris.

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