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By Leo van den Berg

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Herman and J. Regulski, op. cit. 34 Urban Europe transport network. Commuter travel is affected in particular: people no longer need to live near their work or near public transport services. For large categories of society an entirely new situation is created; they can now live anywhere within a given wide area and still have adequate access to all the elements they consider important to their welfare. A job in town can easily be combined with living a considerable distance away, and a number of central provisions in the city will remain within reach.

If, however, such a function does not exist, the government has no such way out. 4), trying to fill the gap in each element in each urban region. A considerable amount of money will then have to be spent on raising levels of provision that, even in regions where from an "objective" point of view well-being is maximum, are below the corresponding levels in other regions. People in regions with high-level amenities and excellent job opportunities will require from the government that the environmental quality of 14 Urban Europe their region is improved and becomes as good as in the region with the highest environmental status.

A new establishment can shatter the competitive conditions within a sector to such an extent as to jeopardize the continuity of existing firms. A recent example in Western European countries is the introduction of large retail establishments outside towns, which can have grave consequences for existing small-scale shops within those towns. Such external effects of the location of industries or services will invoke reactions from the population and also from the government, which is responsible for the fair distribution of the advantages and disadvantages of such developments.

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