By Saskia Sassen
This groundbreaking learn makes a speciality of the significance of position, scale, and country to the learn of globalization. Sassen identifies units of techniques that make up globalization: the 1st and normally studied set of procedures is international associations, from the international exchange association to the conflict Crime Tribunals; the moment and not more usually explored set of approaches ensue on the nationwide and neighborhood point, together with nation financial coverage, small-scale activism that has an particular or implicit international time table, and native politics. Emphasizing the interaction among international and native phenomena, Sassen insightfully examines new varieties and stipulations corresponding to international towns, transnational groups, and commodity chains. This specific method of globalization bargains new interpretive and analytic instruments to appreciate the complexity of worldwide interdependence. Sociology of Globalization is half of the modern Societies sequence.
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Additional info for A Sociology of Globalization (Contemporary Societies Series)
S 2003 Breaking the Conﬂict Trap). Economic approaches emphasize the presence of abundant natural resources (to include land), access to “lootable” goods – diamonds, oil, timber – and the role of greedy conﬂict entrepreneurs in forging insurgencies to capture these resources. Economic dependence on single or especially valuable commodities derived from natural resources can in fact enable armed conﬂicts and may lengthen their duration, especially when desperate governments or rebel forces can capture local access Civil War and Post-War Fragility to critical markets or chokepoints in global trade (Cramer 2002).
This approach relates back to a core ﬁnding about conﬂict dynamics that injustice and inequality – so-called “relative deprivation,” described in chapter 1 – are strong underlying drivers of violence and that the failure to attend to basic human needs for those whose rights are compromised can only create the conditions for future conﬂict. States today, equally, have obligations to provide basic or essential services that underpin development, such as education, health care, and clean water and sanitation.
I. William Zartman insightfully deﬁnes post-war state failure in these words: The basic functions of the state are no longer performed. As the decision-making center of government, the state is paralyzed and inoperative: laws are not made, order is not preserved, and societal cohesion is not enhanced. As a symbol of identity, it has lost its power of conferring a name on its people and a meaning to their social action. As a territory, it is no longer assured security and provisionment by a Civil War and Post-War Fragility central sovereign organization.