Download A History of Modern Computing (2nd Edition) by Paul E. Ceruzzi PDF

By Paul E. Ceruzzi

This attractive historical past covers sleek computing from the improvement of the 1st digital electronic computing device in the course of the dot-com crash. the writer concentrates on 5 key moments of transition: the transformation of the pc within the overdue Nineteen Forties from a really good medical software to a advertisement product; the emergence of small platforms within the past due Sixties; the start of non-public computing within the Seventies; the unfold of networking after 1985; and, in a bankruptcy written for this variation, the interval 1995-2001. the hot fabric specializes in the Microsoft antitrust go well with, the increase and fall of the dot-coms, and the appearance of open resource software program, really Linux. in the chronological narrative, the ebook lines a number of overlapping threads: the evolution of the computer's inner layout; the influence of monetary tendencies and the chilly conflict; the long term function of IBM as a participant and as a aim for upstart marketers; the expansion of software program from a hidden aspect to a massive personality within the tale of computing; and the routine factor of where of data and computing in a democratic society. the focal point is at the usa (though Europe and Japan input the tale at an important points), on computing consistent with se instead of on purposes akin to synthetic intelligence, and on structures that have been offered commercially and put in in amounts.

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IBM’s Response At the time of the UNIVAC’s announcement, IBM was not fully committed to electronic computation and was vigorously marketing its line of punched card calculators and tabulators. But after seeing the competitive threat, it responded with several machines: two were on a par with the UNIVAC; another was more modest. In May 1952, IBM announced the 701, a stored-program computer in the same class as the UNIVAC. Although not an exact copy, its design closely followed that of the computer that John von Neumann was having built at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton.

From IBM Corporation, ‘‘IBM Data Processing Functions,’’ Brochure 224-8208-5, ca. 1963. 9 A decade later, that was precisely what J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly were proposing to do—go to great expense and effort to create a ‘‘universal’’ machine that could handle both business and scientific problems. Ironically, Wallace Eckert was among the first to venture away from traditional punched-card practices and toward one more like the digital computers that would later appear. Despite his recommendation against building specialized equipment, he did have a device called a control switch designed at his laboratory.

18 In other words, with cables connecting the machines, the installation became one that executed instructions sequentially and was programmable in a more flexible way than plugging cables. 19 Perhaps several hundred in all were installed between 1948 and the mid 1950s—far fewer than the thousands of tabulators, punches, and other equipment installed in the traditional way. But even that was many times greater than the number of electronic computer installations worldwide until about 1954. 20 The Aberdeen calculators and the 604 were transitional machines, between calculators, tabulators, and genuine computers like the UNIVAC.

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