By Lucy Eldersveld Murphy
In a meeting of Rivers, Lucy Eldersveld Murphy strains the histories of Indian, multiracial, and mining groups within the western nice Lakes area through the eighteenth and early 19th centuries. For a century the Winnebagos (Ho-Chunks), Mesquakies (Fox), and Sauks effectively faced waves of French and British immigration through diversifying their economies and commercializing lead mining.Focusing on own tales and unique group histories, Murphy charts the replaced fiscal forces at paintings within the sector, connecting them to shifts in gender roles and intercultural relationships. She argues that French, British, and local peoples solid cooperative social and fiscal bonds expressed in part by means of mixed-race marriages and the emergence of multiethnic groups at eco-friendly Bay and Prairie du Chien. considerably, local peoples within the western nice Lakes sector have been capable of adapt effectively to the recent frontier industry economic system until eventually their lead mining operations grew to become the envy of outsiders within the 1820s.
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Extra info for A Gathering of Rivers: Indians, Metis, and Mining in the Western Great Lakes, 1737-1832
This woman was able to free her fellow prisoners because ‘‘the chief, from the extreme torture he suffered, was unable to call out . . ’’ 46 Other women also had substantial authority within their tribes, which might be at least partially ascriptive. While the information available about this Mesquakie ‘‘chiefess’’ is limited to what Carver learned decades later, much more is known about a Winnebago chief, Habogu ˛ ˛ga, i Glory of the Morning. Glory of the Morning, an only child, was born during the Fox Wars, the daughter of her tribe’s principal chief.
T]hey came to meet me with peacepipes and saluted me with a lot of [gun]shots. I had their salute answered with three shots and went oﬀ to camp across from their village in the accustomed spot. They came to pay me their compliments. ’’ 82 Later that day he had a private meeting with the village’s war leader, Yellow Thunder, who had been recruited by the Rock River Sauks to join a war party against the Illinois. ’’ 83 The next day Marin held a council with the village leaders, urging them to ‘‘watch over their young men’’ and to keep peace.
At the same time, a series of epidemic diseases contributed to the devastation of the Winnebagos, whose population plummeted during the seventeenth century from about , or , to a low of approximately as a result of disease and war. By the French Canadian government initiated the Fox Wars and de- Fur Trade and Accommodation veloped a policy of literal genocide against the Mesquakies, who had resisted French control. While these wars raged, in epidemics of what may have been measles also attacked the Mesquakies, who had numbered well over , in the s.