By George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD
This e-book is the main accomplished reference grammar of Choctaw, an American Indian language spoken via nearly 11 thousand humans situated basically in Mississippi and Oklahoma. in response to nineteen years of box paintings with audio system of the Mississippi and Oklahoma dialects and greater than a hundred and fifty years of written Choctaw fabric, A Choctaw Reference Grammar includes the main entire description up to now of the morphology of the language in addition to a radical remedy of word constitution, be aware order, case marking, and complementation.The Choctaw tribe used to be divided into Oklahoma and Mississippi teams throughout the Indian elimination of the 1830s. at the present time the vast majority of fluent audio system one of the Oklahoma Choctaws are greater than 40 years outdated, and few childrens communicate the language. even if extra teenagers one of the Mississippi Choctaws research the language, the quantity is declining. simply because language is essential to conserving the Choctaws’ lifestyle and either dialects of Choctaw are endangered, cautious documentation of the grammatical constitution of the language is significantly very important. Compiled via the top scholarly professional at the Choctaw language, George Aaron Broadwell, this quantity is either a pragmatic consultant to local audio system and an quintessential instruction manual for linguists.
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Extra info for A Choctaw Reference Grammar
Skunk' 'dog' The final vowel in [koni]has a breathy quality, andmight sometimes be best represented as [konih]. When a suffix such as the nominative case marker -at is added, an [h] is clearly audible: (40) [konih-at] 'skunk (nominative)' No such [h] is present when a case marker is added to a form ending in glottal stop. ]'dog' This view of Choctaw phonology holds that there are (at least) two rules affecting these forms. 2. Problems with the standard view This view of Choctaw phonology is quite appealing in eliminating the glottal stop as a phoneme, but unfortunately the rules fail to account for the full range of data.
Alla? Eipdta-yat am-al-ahii-ya child s ~ ~ ~ ~ : P~SIII-CO~~-IRR-DS L-NM hag-im-ahni. / 2~1-111-allow 'Suffer the little children t o come unto me . ' (Matt. 19:14) As this example shows, the orthographic units do not always correspond to morphemes. 2. Mississippi Choctaw orthography A second orthography was designed by the staff of the Bilingual Education program of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians in the mid-l97Os, and was used in producing many of the materials used in the 3. To complicate matters even more, the editors of Byington (1915) changed several aspects of the traditional orthography.
15a) abi-h kill-TNS 'she/he/it/they kill' We can view this insertion of this a as a device that ensures that the verb stem meets the minimal length requirements for a word. See chapter 9 for more details on short verbs. 4. General rules of Choctaw phonology Nicklas (1974) and Ulrich (1986) are the principal sources for a detailed discussion of Choctaw phonology. My remarks here summarize the work of Ulrich, which should be consulted for further information. In the present section, I discuss general ("postlexical ") phonological rules of the language.